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"Geological Features and Artifacts"   Nov 26, 2001

Utah Canyons
Photos by William L. Salkin
The Canyons of Utah by William L. Salkin
Samples from the winner of "Best of Show" award at the 2001 NSA convention.
  • Cottonwood Narrows 1--
  • Cottonwood Narrows --
  • Fisher Towers --
  • Peek-a-boo Gulch --
  • Waterholes Canyon --

Crystal Canyons
Photos by John Hart
Crystal Canyons by John Hart
  • The Subway-- Slot Canyon in Zion National Park
  • The Cathedral -- Pine Creek Canyon in Zion National Park
  • Big Rappel -- Lomatium Canyon in Arches National Park
  • Avalanche Creek Canyon -- Glacier Nation Park

Caves and Minerals
Photos by David W. Kesner
Caves and Minerals by David W. Kesner
  • Coral Mushroom -- a lava tube cave coral and mushrooms of an undetermined complex mineral deposit (calcium, slica, magnesium, sulfate, etc.).
  • Eroded Gypsum -- a section of gypsum in a lava tube cave that is being slowly eroded away by air currents. On the left side you can see a handprint done by a vicious cave vandal!
  • Gypsum Coral -- a section of gypsum with secondary calcite cave coral growing on it. From the same lava tube as above.
  • Lava Spire -- a "mini-volcano" of lava that is extuded up through a whole in the floor where a pool or river of molten lava was flowing under a hardened layer. If the lava is very viscous, it builds up in these spires. These are about 2-3 feet tall.
  • Flat Spire -- same as above except the lava is much thinner and can't build-up. Instead it flows out and forms these "petrified cowpies".
  • Lava Pearl -- cave pearls in limestone caves are well known, but have never been reported in a lava tube cave. Here the basalt bedrock is broken down into small pebbles that get polished by dripping water. That same water is rich in minerals that eventually coat the pebbles the same way that limestone or natural pearls are made. The black is the basalt and the white is the secondary mineral (a complex combination like that above).
  • Quartz Bi-Crystal -- a double quartz crystal. 
  • Quartz Crystals -- a multiple quartz crystal.

Aerial Views
Photos by Gabriel Jacob
Aerial Views by Gabriel Jacob
  • The Dead Sea -- showing salt production in the foreground.
  • The Grand Canyon --
  • Hoover Dam --
  • Las Vegas, Nevada --
  • Sedona, Arizona -- 
  • Sedona, Arizona --
  • San Francisco, California --

Eroding Gypsum
Photos by Gary Nored
Erosion by Gary Nored
Eroding gypsum at the Caprock Canyonlands state park in the Texas Panhandle.
  • Gypsum Dome -- shows "bubbles" of gypsum protruding through new soil. Gypsum swells when wet. The top layer gets wetter than lower layers causing "domes" to pop up over a short period of time.
  • Water Eroded Gypsum -- illustrates the very different appearance of an inclined layer of gypsum that protrudes into running water.
  • Creek Bed -- gypsum layers embedded in a red sandstone matrix. Illustrating the early stage of erosion of a formation with layers of varying hardness.

Landforms and Fossils
Photos by Dale Walsh, Stuart Stiles,
Robert MacLeay, and Lynda Nygren,
Landforms and Fossils 
  • Balancing Rock -- Dale Walsh
  • Brachiopod Fossil -- Brachiopod fossils are the object of frequent treasure hunts on the hill of Devonian Era glacial till, where we have our family cabin. In the top piece of water-torn stone, there are imprinted molds of shells. In the lower rock, a slab stone wall, there is a casting of a shell. Both types of fossil structures reveal the outer features of the creature. -- Stuart Stiles
  • Petrified Log -- Dale Walsh
  • Schoodic Point, Maine -- looking south to Bar Harbor in the far distance. -- Robert MacLeay.
  • Devil's Tower -- Linda Nygren
  • Theodore Roosevelt National park -- Linda Nygren

Copyright (c) 2001 Graphic Media Research.

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